What is the Cause if Global Warming and Why It Happening?

You often hear about global warming in discussions, books, articles, and even in conversations at a party. And whether it interests you or not, this is not something that can be ignored anymore. It is a scientific fact, and all the signs are screaming at us to prove that. Devastating hurricanes, tsunamis, earthquakes, massive flooding, terrible wildfire – just to name a few. Perhaps we should dig deeper and see what the fuss is all about?

What is Global Warming?

Here is a dictionary definition of global warming. “An increase in the earth’s average atmospheric temperature that causes corresponding changes in climate and that may result from the greenhouse effect (more on this later).” Let’s see what does this all mean. But first, take a look at the picture (source: Skeptical Science) below that shows signs of global warming.

the causes of global warming picture

Source: Skeptical Science

Notice things like melting glaciers, rising humidity, sea level rising, arrival of early springs and more. They all tell us one thing – our planet is getting hotter. Before we delve into the causes of Global Warming, let’s briefly talk about some of the terminologies such as greenhouse effect, greenhouse gases, etc.

Causes of Greenhouse Effect

The planet earth receives sunlight from the sun. The earth then absorbs some of the energy and becomes hotter. It’s similar to the way our homes radiate heat, long after the sunset, especially during hot summer days. The reason is that the house has absorbed a lot of energy from the sun. After the sunset, the earth cools down and gives off something called infrared radiation. However, the gases in the atmosphere, known as the greenhouse gases, block some of the heat radiation from being released back into outer space. If this natural process didn’t happen, the earth would be a very cold place. This whole process between the sun, the atmosphere, and the earth is known as the Greenhouse Effect. The balance of the atmospheric gases is crucial in keeping the earth’s temperature constant. However, some things are causing an imbalance in those gases, resulting in a continued rise in the planet’s temperature, slowly but surely.

What causes Global Warming?

Believe it or not, first and foremost, it is us, the humans who are the major contributors to Global Warming. Humans emit several greenhouse gases from our cars, factories, and electricity production, and the gas that’s responsible for heating up the planet is carbon dioxide, also known as CO2. Other greenhouse gases include the methane gas from landfills and agriculture, nitrous oxide from fertilizers, gases used in refrigeration and other industrial processes. Fluorinated gases such as Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride are synthetic, powerful greenhouse gases. These are emitted from different industrial processes. Some gases are more effective than others, and some could remain in the atmosphere up to a few thousand years. Forced deforestation is another major factor as the trees would’ve stored some of the CO2. With declining forests, more carbon dioxide is being released into the atmosphere.

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 2012

list of effects of global warming
Traffic

The atmosphere is becoming like a thick blanket due to carbon dioxide and other air pollution. And this blanket is trapping the heat from the sun, causing the temperature to rise. How do motor vehicles contribute to the overall air pollution? In the US, automobiles are the second largest source of carbon dioxide pollution after the coal-burning power plants. Motor vehicles generate almost 1.5 billion tons of CO2 annually. Sixty percent of these emissions come from cars and trucks, and the remaining are from heavy-duty vehicles and airplanes.

Cars and trucks contribute to carbon emissions in three different ways:
• The amount of fuel they use.
• The type of fuel they use – meaning the amount of carbon released when a particular type of fuel is used.
• The number of miles traveled by the vehicle – more you drive your car, more CO2 is being released into the atmosphere from your car.

sources of energy gas emission 2012

Courtesy to resilience.org

Deforestation

Should you hug a tree? Although the idea was more spiritual than scientific, today scientists are discovering the benefits of hugging a tree. hug a tree imageNo, I am not here to talk about that, but rather the relationship between deforestation and global warming. And after you’ve seen the benefits of trees in our lives, you may even want to hug one.
You’ve heard of rainforests. They are responsible for forming a cooling band around the equator. Now that more and more rainforests are being destroyed, the earth has begun to experience climatic changes. This is because carbon emission from deforestation is much greater than the damages caused by automobiles and planes. Deforestation is considered to be a hidden but a major cause of global warming.
Recent studies reveal that Indonesia has become the third-largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world. Brazil is right behind it. What is amazing is that none of these countries contains heavy industry on a comparable scale with the major industrial countries in the world. The five countries with the largest forest areas are the Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, the United States and China. Together they account for more than half of the planet’s forest area and the Russian Federation alone accounts for 20% of the world total. Except for the United States and China, Indonesia and Brazil have exceeded all other countries in this respect.

So, what’s really happening there? Both rich in tropical rain forests, but losing their forests at an alarmingly high rate. The forests are being cut and burned, and you can even see the smoke stacks from space. The same could be seen in other parts of the world as well, for example, the Congo basin in Africa. More than 50 percent of the life on earth can be found in tropical forests, which occupy less than 7 percent of the planet’s surface.

The rainforests generate the bulk of rainfall worldwide. They are like the thermostat for our planet. Many people may not be aware that the forests are also home to 1.6 billion of the poorest population of the world. These people rely on the forests for their subsistence.
Coming back to global warming. With less rain, less water, and more carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere, our planet is warming up a bit more each day and although it may not be noticeable, massive destruction caused by imbalance in nature are all around us.

Installation of Solar Panels

estimate solar energyInstalling a solar power system on your home or business is an excellent way to lower your energy costs while benefiting the environment. Many different types of solar panel kits and systems are available ranging from rooftop models to stand alone systems and and many can be easily installed by an industrious home owner. You won’t have to obtain an engineering degree or anything like that to get the job done and you don’t have to hire a high-priced installer. In fact, it’s fairly straight-forward. Many times solar panels come in kits that include very specific instructions on how to install them properly so it is just a matter of following directions.

The amount it will cost you to install solar panels on your own home is dependent upon a number of factors including the number of panels, condition of the roof as well as any tools and supplies you may need to purchase. According to the Solar Energy Industries Association; “Common residential system prices ranged from less than $3.00/W to almost $8.00/W”. This includes labor and the price of the system itself. It’s clear that if you eliminate the cost of labor, for a professional installation, the price will be lower, but, again, it varies depending on your individual circumstances.

 

How Solar Panels Work

Solar power can be a mystery in terms of just exactly how it all works. Most people understand that it all begins with the powerful sun that transmits energy through the atmosphere and onto the solar panel. But, what happens within the solar panel that produces electricity?

how solar energy work

Courtesy for maceenergy.co.uk

Solar panels are made up of smaller units that are referred to as “photovoltaic cells”, which means that they convert sunlight into electricity. Solar panels are made up of several of these cells that are all linked together. These photovoltaic cells are a kind of sandwich, if you will, that is made up of two pieces of semi-conducting material like silicon. One piece of the silicon has a positive charge, the other a negative charge. This creates an electric field between the two.

When sunlight, or more specifically photons from the sun, are filtered through the solar panel, they end up in the middle where the electric charge is. This causes the solar panel to release electrons. Conductive metal plates on the sides of the cell collect the electrons and send them traveling down wires. Sometimes the electricity is directly fed into the electrical outlets in our homes, just like any other source of electricity. Other times, the power is directed to batteries to be used at another time. Excess power, what we can’t use or store right away, makes its way back into the power grid and can be sold to the power company.

How Many Solar Panels Will You Need?

how-many-solar-panels-muppetThe number of solar panels that are needed depends completely upon your specific electricity needs. If you run a large number of electric appliances that are older and not energy efficient, you will need more than if you have high efficiency appliances. That said, the average home uses right around typical solar panel produces around 200 watts of power and the average household uses about 48 kWh of electricity per day.

What that means is that the average home will require a 5 kWh array, or roughly 25 solar panels to provide adequate power. That said, some households may only wish to provide a percentage of the total power from solar energy while others will wish to go for 100%. The level of production required will determine the number of panels that are necessary. To find out just exactly what you’ll need, use one of the online solar power cost calculators to figure this out. You’ll need some basic information such as past energy usage which you can find out by looking at your utility bills. Just fill in the requested numbers and you’ll get a good idea of how many panels you’ll need and an approximate costs associated with them as well as when you can expect to see a return on your investment.

Keep in mind that you do have to take the time to be sure that you understand the local and state regulations regarding their installation. Since every state, city and municipality has their own specific rules, it is impossible to list them all here. However, you can find out more information by doing an online search for the regulations in your own area. Once you’ve gotten that information, you’ll be ready to get started.

If you’re serious about saving money on your energy costs, not just in the short-term, but for the long-haul, solar power is the way to go. There are many excellent solar power companies that provide complete kits for the do-it-yourself inclined person that are quite reasonable and the prices are going down all the time. By taking the time to install the solar panels yourself, you’ll save money on the installation, and the system overall. Plus, you’ll have the added benefit of being able to brag about how you did the work yourself and how low your utility bills are now that you’ve gotten solar power connected to your home. As an added bonus, you could produce more electricity than you use and you might even get a check from the power company for selling the excess power back to them.

Why Are Solar Panels Wired in Series

The usage of non renewable sources of energy is increasing day by day and the day when the world will run out of them is not far off. The pollution and destruction the non-renewable sources create may eventually challenge the very existence of the human race on the planet, hence it is important that we start concentrating more on green sources of energy.why are solar panels wired in series

Solar energy is one source of green energy. The solar energy can easily be tapped with the help of proper use of solar panels. Solar panels are used to generate electricity from the sun and are the most preferred sources of green energy. Solar panels are available in the market which can be bought in the required number as per requirement and installed.

The working of a solar panel and why are solar panels wired in series:

The output of a solar panel is always a DC voltage. Home appliances work on AC, hence the generated DC voltage has to be converted to AC voltage using inverter. But, the DC output of individual solar panel is low and the AC inverters need high DC input voltage to work. This can be solved by connecting various solar panels in series, where all the voltages generated by individual solar panels will be summed up. Hence this should explain why are solar panels wired in series. One more point should be taken into account that is the total output voltage of all the solar panels connected together in series should not be more than 600 V in DC.

The problems with series connection of solar panels:

This may seem to be the solution to get high input voltage to the inverters to convert the DC voltage generated by the solar panels to AC voltage, there is a problem that rises up as soon as you connect panels in series. That is, if all the solar panels generate equal amount of voltage then the system will be working just about awesome! But if one of the panel is under the shade of a tree or is delivering lesser amount of DC voltage as output then the efficiency of the system drops drastically, by say 20% to 30%.

The solutions to the problems generated by the series connection of solar panels:

The obvious solution to the above mentioned problem where the solar panel gets shaded due to a tree would be to cut down all the trees in the near by region around the solar panel. Similarly, the other alternative for tall skyscrapers or multi-storied building would be to have the solar panels installed on the roof tops where the panels are not obstructed by any trees or other objects.

But, practically speaking, partial shading cannot be completely avoided right? So, there is an electronic solution where the system equipped with bypass diodes or microinverters to reroute the current around the under performing solar panels, but rerouting again has a small glitch where it will result in the loss of potential energy from these cells and lowering the entire string’s voltage but only to a small extent, hence this method can be used where there is the problem of shades effecting the efficiency and productivity of the solar panels connected in series.

By fine tuning the series connection of solar panels one can easily make efficient use of sunlight and generate enough electricity to drive a home. The fine tuning is the most time taking process and varies according to the region and the atmospheric conditions.

source :

http://www.sunwindproducts.com/LearningCenter/BatteryLifeSolarWiringBatteryWiringWireSizing.html

Efficiency of Solar Panels – Analyze Your Energy Rate

Using Software to Review Your Current Energy Produce

If you are someone who is curious about the properties of water and steam but find the formulas used for determining temperature, specific volume, pressure, entropy & enthalpy too complex, then you must opt for solar energy graphs which can be quite helpful to you in finding such properties.

Two Dimensional & Constant Value Lines

The solar energy graphs come in two varieties, the one dimensional and the two dimensional where you can see two chief properties in their respective axis. The remaining properties are shown in lines with constant values at different intervals.
One of the most commonly used graphs is the enthalpy-entropy solar energy graphs, which is also called as Molliere Diagram.

mollier diagram

In this graph you can see constant pressure lines, specific volumes lines & constant temperature lines at various intervals. Moreover, the solar energy graphs which show pressure-temperature, temperature-entropy, etc. could be made along with various other properties which are highlighted in the form of constant lines.
There’s no doubt that with the aid of solar energy graphs one can get precise results, but still some minor inaccuracies may take place which you can easily eliminate with the use of software. Therefore, the solar energy graphs like the Molliere Diagrams are extensively used by intellectuals or the academics for understanding the basics and concepts.
Once you make up your mind to use the software to create solar energy graphs, you can gain numerous benefits from it. There’s no need for you to have the hard copy of diagrams anymore, you can in fact see everything on your computer screen and save the data on your hard disk or even print it. Such type of software comes real handy while creating diagrams and you can easily see a wider assortment of constant line properties. Moreover, these do not have any tendencies for inaccuracies. You can even view solar energy graphs clearer with the use of your computer’s high color resolution display.
The software is of great help for intellectuals and academics as they can create solar energy graphs as and when they want for exploring, investigating or explaining the variations with the help of just few simple commands.
Though, software like these for generating solar energy graphs are not that easy to find. You need to invest time and do a proper research until you find the one that is ideal for you. Once you have found such software, life will be easier for you. You will not have to rely upon printed diagrams anymore and with the help of such software your whole concept regarding graphs will be changed forever.

Here it is, I found one video on youtube where this guy teach us how to read the Mollier Diagram, but for a different case